The Venezuelan Crisis: What Now? A Dialogue with Experts from the Energy, Military and Financial Sectors

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Luis E. Giusti 
Former Chairman and CEO
Petróleos de Venezuela S.A.

Luis Giusti, a petroleum engineer and private consultant, has been a senior adviser at the Center for Strategic & International Studies since April 1999, principally in energy and Latin American affairs.


In 1994 he was appointed Chairman and CEO of PDVSA, a job he held until March 1999. Under his leadership, the Venezuelan petroleum sector underwent major reform, which included an opening to private participation, with resulting estimated foreign direct investments of about $30 billion for the period 1995 to 2004.


Carlos J. Peñaloza 
Former Chief of Staff
Venezuelan Army

General Peñaloza is a recognized Venezuelan political and military strategist and scholar specialized in Castro communism subversion in Latin America and the influence of oil in political instability.

Peñaloza is a retired Venezuelan Army General, former director of the Military Academy of Venezuela, Commander of the Division Selva and Chief of the Unified Command of the Armed Forces. After retirement, he worked for 15 years as an investment banker in the U.S.


Mark Walker 
Managing Director
Head of Sovereign Advisory
Millstein and Co.

Mark Walker has over 35 years of hands on experience advising with respect to sovereign debt and working for and with national oil companies.


Millstein & Co. is acting as financial advisor to a representative group of key holders of sovereign bonds issued by Venezuela and bonds issued by PDVSA.  The committee has organized in order to be in a position to evaluate statements made by Venezuela and PDVSA with regard to their present situation and financial condition, to facilitate communication among bondholders and other stakeholders, and to consider financing alternatives under an appropriate policy scenario.


Jose Enrique Arrioja  
Latin America Editor and Reporter 
Bloomberg News 

Jose Enrique helps with strategic planning for the coverage of the region via the company’s core product, the Bloomberg Professional service, also known as the Bloomberg Terminal.


A Venezuelan native, he joined Bloomberg in 2000 as TV reporter covering NYSE and equity markets. From 2006 to 2009 he became producer and anchor of a daily show about Latin America. Prior to Bloomberg, Arrioja worked as a reporter in Caracas for Economia Hoy and covered the industrial sector for El Universal and El Nacional, the two leading national newspapers.